By Leroy A Campbell
The translation of non secular iconography is an issue of the best complexity, now not least with regards to Mithraism the place there are not any texts to assist in scholarly reconstruction of the underlying ideology . it's, for that reason, brilliant that theories propounded on the flip of the century via Cumont have met with nearly common attractiveness and little, if any, primary revision. Cumont argued that the Mithraic reliefs depicted a lifetime of the god; starting with the delivery scenes the divine lifestyles used to be traced via excellent deeds (i .e . generating water from a rock), and a sequence of adventures (involving Mithras hiding in a tree and being affected by the bull to trap it), prior to attaining his life-giving sacrifice of the bull, over whose physique a ritual meal was once celebrated ahead of Mithras' ascension to heaven in a chariot. at the grounds of an alleged parallel with the Zoroastrian delusion of Ahriman's slaughter of the bull the full lifestyles was once positioned within the primeval interval . even though Cumont argued that the ideology used to be topic to Babylonian and Hellenistic iconographic effect, he maintained that the root of the ideology was once Iranian faith, this although there's no proof whatever for an Iranian trust within the lifestyles in the world of Mithra or any god. The illogicality of this place is felt progressively more by way of students and paths are obvious out of the obvious deadlock; one is to suppress, if no longer deny, the Iranian personality of Roman Mithraism; the opposite, followed by means of Campbell, is to reinterpret the iconography. Campbell has accrued a wealth of fabric, not just Iranian and Roman but in addition Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian, Greek, Hittite, Phoenician, the Luristan bronzes and Mitanni seals for instance. In twelve chapters he considers the symbolism of the iconography of the cave, the tauroctone figures, the zodiac and Mithraic orientation, the celebs, planets, winds and seasons as depicted at the reliefs, Mithras driving a horse (Mithras ephippos), Mithras and the bull (Mithras tauroctonos) and can pay specific realization to different registers at the south-east ecu reliefs. He makes no declare to have produced the ultimate and authoritative paintings on Mithraism yet sees his ebook extra as a pioneering enterprise. He writes: `I have tried to blaze a direction via tricky methods for Diligence and wish to follow'.
By Ansgar Stöcklein (auth.), Ansgar Stöcklein, Mohammed Rassem (eds.)
Moderne Naturwissenschaften und Technik gehören zur Entwicklung im christlichen Abendland. Wie hat christliches Gedankengut das Entstehen der Technik beeinflußt? Die wechselseitigen Beziehungen von technischen Innovationen und religiösen Strömungen in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart werden dargestellt. Technik und Wissenschaft